SMALL AND MEDIUM BUSINESS IN KAZAKHSTAN: INTRODUCTION

Stage by stage Kazakhstan overcomes a difficult and inconsistent way of transformation of economy in the course of its formation as sovereign state: the former economic system is completely dismantled. Liberalizations of economy and structure transformations are consistently carried out, and development of private business is performed.

One of the factors characterizing the entrepreneurship climate in the country is the level of development of small and medium business that creates new workplaces and promotes growth of social welfare of the population.

By estimations of experts the Republic of Kazakhstan has achieved considerable successes in activization of SMB development. The enterprises and the organizations of SMB of the Republic make up 70 % of all goods and services. Thus, the country leaders aspire to make SMB development even more active. The standard legal base of development and the state support of small business as a whole are generated in the Republic.

World experience testifies that small and medium business development can bring the contribution to the decision of such important problems as unemployment, poverty, manufacture development, expansion of the field of taxable base, perfection of the consumer market and social sphere, middle class formation that is the guarantor of internal political stability of the society.

However, there is a number of the factors worsening the entrepreneurship climate and they demand steadfast attention from the state bodies and legislative fastening.

The analysis of SMB sector shows that weak sides have not changed practically since 2000. They are the following:

• Absence of accurately expressed practical measures on carrying out of the support policy in SMB and professional training;

• Discrepancy of legislative and statutory acts;

• Low solvency of the population;

• Branch imbalance and low level of specialization of SMB and quality of production;

• Access problems to financial sources – absence of the starting capital, the effective mortgaging and insurance mechanism;

• Absence of knowledge and skills in market conditions, lack of legal information;

• Corruption, extortion;

• The rigid tax and customs policy, especially in administration questions;

• A hyper sensibility of small business to economic changes;

• Insufficient level of supply with information.

Let us consider the problem of SMB crediting in the Republic of Kazakhstan.

First of all, this problem is connected with low investment appeal of small and medium business that is caused by its unstable financial status, absence of the forecast of solvent demand for their production, low competitiveness of made production and absence of management of risks.

Banks owing to low guaranty of small business are compelled to transfer risk cost on credits by interest rate increase of loans.

Besides, insufficient funds level of small business enterprises does not promote increase of economic efficiency of small business sector because of its low labour productivity and constrains crediting of small business under the security of fixed assets. For this reason throughout a number of years trading-intermediary activity for businessmen remains a unique accessible method of accumulation of own financial assets. The income of small business on goods realization and services in trade sphere makes more than 60 % from total amount of the income received by them.

However, even simple transfer of the credit resources received from the international financial institutions by the following chain: international financial organization – the authorized state body – bank of the second level – the businessman, and means the increase in the interest rate at 4-7 % at each stage. All these percent and other “unprofitable” expenses connected with reception of the credit lead to the increase of prices for production of the Kazakhstan enterprises not less than by one third.

It is supposed that maintenance of financial-crediting and investment support of small business will be based on development of specialized institutes and introduction level schemes of financial-credit maintenance of target groups of small business with an establishment of comprehensible to them conditions and crediting procedures. The base of this specified scheme is the system of micro crediting for enterprise initiatives of the least provided citizens and beginner businessmen, including the village, and carried out both on commercial, and on granting basis with simplific ation of technical procedures of registration of the credit acts. During 2009 – 2010 some changes and the additions connected with the further decrease of tax burden for small businesses were made in the Tax Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan. So, for today rather progressive measures directed on perfection of system of tax regulation of activity of small enterprises are provided in the Tax Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Most important of them is the differentiated approach to granting of the preferential mode of small business taxation to subjects depending on the organizational and legal form, income level, and also introduction of a special mode for agriculture businesses.

So, the separate section of the Tax Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan provides the special tax modes essentially reducing tax loading and simplifying system of the taxation, including concerning entities of small business, country farms, legal bodies – manufacturers of agricultural products. The special tax mode for small business entities is defined on the basis of single coupons, the patent and the simplified declaration.

However, the efforts accepted recently from the state on creation of standard and legal base of regulation of small business, in particular in questions of tax regulation did not solve the basic problems on creation of a favorable climate for this sector of economy. Tax administration on the contrary was considerably amplified. Taxes should stimulate enterprise activity. Simultaneously everyone wishing to begin the business should receive equal starting possibilities for this purpose in our country. For this purpose it is necessary to achieve introduction of tax privileges system for a small business, especially in depressive, ecologically unsuccessful regions, in the form of clearing of payment of the corporate tax for the period from 3 till 5 years for newly created manufactures.

Problems of administrative barriers:

• Regular checks are not regulated by frequency;

• Possibility of continuous increase of time for documents check;

• Lack of objectivetiming;

• Restriction of periods of single coupons validity in the markets till 9 days;

• High administrative penalties for tax laws infringement.

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