Archive for January 30, 2014

SMALL AND MEDIUM BUSINESS IN KAZAKHSTAN: INTRODUCTION

January 30, 2014

Stage by stage Kazakhstan overcomes a difficult and inconsistent way of transformation of economy in the course of its formation as sovereign state: the former economic system is completely dismantled. Liberalizations of economy and structure transformations are consistently carried out, and development of private business is performed.

One of the factors characterizing the entrepreneurship climate in the country is the level of development of small and medium business that creates new workplaces and promotes growth of social welfare of the population.

By estimations of experts the Republic of Kazakhstan has achieved considerable successes in activization of SMB development. The enterprises and the organizations of SMB of the Republic make up 70 % of all goods and services. Thus, the country leaders aspire to make SMB development even more active. The standard legal base of development and the state support of small business as a whole are generated in the Republic.

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SMALL AND MEDIUM BUSINESS IN KAZAKHSTAN: EFFICIENCY

January 28, 2014

EFFICIENCY

In the majority of the world countries the growth of small and medium business is of great importance for development of the whole economy and increase of its efficiency. Small and medium enterprises are the base of economy, and in the perspective it is the steadiest part, only with development of small and medium business the construction of stable functioning market economy is possible.

Small and medium business (SMB) is a mobile and productive sector of economy. It really creates a considerable share of gross domestic product and the most part of the working population is involved in it. It is important not only for industrially developed states, but also for the countries with a transitional economy.

The role of SMB is great not only by quantity, but also by function, otherwise, by those problems that are solved by SMB in economy, namely – middle class formation – the main guarantor of political stability in a democratic society, creation of new workplaces with rather low capital expenses, liquidation of monopoly of manufacturers, creation of the competitive environment.

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NANOTECHNOLOGY: Regulatory measures

January 26, 2014

Regulatory measures

The study on the toxic effects of nanomaterials on plants is an upcoming area of research. The plants have a tendency to absorb non-essencial elements along with essential elements, which when accumulated above a threshold level may have lethal effect on non-tolerant species (Ke et al. 2001, Bondada et al. 2004, Arias et al. 2010). Once accumulated in the plant tissue these toxic elements can enter the food chain and ultimately the higher organisms. The large quantities of different engineered nanomaterials being produced for application in wide range of functions thus open up the possibility of inevitable release of a considerable amount of these nanomaterials into the environment which may accumulate at specific sites in the geo and hydrosphere (e.g. soils, groundwater and water bodies) or in the biosphere. Once released in the soil or water directly in the form of nano-based agricultural chemicals, accidental release, or indirectly through contamination, these nanomaterials can be easily accessible to plants (Rico et al. 2011).

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NANOTECHNOLOGY: Effect of nanomaterials on soil microorganisms

January 24, 2014

In soil, microbial communities play very important role in organic matter recycling and mineralization of nutrients thus play a crucial role in soil fertility and plant growth. Certain groups of bacteria form symbiotic relationships with legumes and fix atmospheric nitrogen, providing a major source of fixed nitrogen for host as well as other plants. Another group of rhizobacteria exert positive effect on plant growth and are called plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (Kloepper 1989). Denitrifying and nitrifying bacteria play an important role in nitrogen cycle. Many groups of bacteria form symbiotic relationships with animals from insects to humans. Some of these bacteria help in digestion process, others perform more unusual functions. There are groups of microorganisms which produce antibiotic against plants and animals pathogens. Microorganisms have been used as soil health indicators because of their intimate relationship with their surroundings owing to their high surface to volume ratio. Any factor affecting soil microflora also affects soil fertility and productivity thus causing imbalance in ecosystem. Population of soil microflora depends on physicochemical properties of soil, pH, moisture content, partial pressure of oxygen and composition of plant root exudates. Although the soil is rich in natural nanoparticles formed due to continuous weathering and rearrangement of its geogenic constituents coupled with high biological activity. The extensive and uncontrolled use of engineered NPs may result in their accumulation in environment, agricultural lands and water bodies, affecting the physicochemical and biological properties of soil due to their very reactive nature. Therefore, it is very important to study the effect of released nanomaterial on the soil microflora (Mishra and Kumar 2009). Bank Singapore’s graduates

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NANOTECHNOLOGY: Effect of nanomaterials on plant growth

January 22, 2014

plant growth

The effect of nanoparticles on plant growth varies greatly with the type of nano-particle, concentration used and the plant species being studied. Further different nano-particles affect different growth processes of plants. The nanomaterial can enter the plant by binding to carrier proteins, through aquaporin, ion channels, endocytosis, by creating new pores or by binding to the organic chemical in the environmental media (Rico et al. 2011). Interaction of nanoparticles with edible plants has been recently reviewed by Rico et al. 2011. Confocal fluorescence image studies have revealed the capacity of single walled carbon nanotubes to traverse across both the plant cell wall and cell membrane (Liu et al. 2009). Compared to plant cell walls and membranes, the penetration of nanoparticles into seeds is expected to be difficult due to the significantly thick seed coat covering the whole seed. Khodakovskaya et al. (2009) demonstrated that CNTs could effectively penetrate seed coat, thereby influencing the seed germination and plant growth. Exposure of seeds to CNT s (40 ^g/ml in MS medium) enhanced tomato seed germination and growth rate. The presence of CNT s inside the seeds was also confirmed by Raman spectrum and transmission electron microscope. The CNTs create pores in the cell wall thus enhancing water uptake thereby promoting germination. The seeds treated with CNTs showed higher moisture content as compared to control seeds (Srinivasan and Saraswathi 2010). The positive effect of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on seed germination and root growth of crops like radish (Raphanus sativus), rape (Brassica napus), rye grass (Lolium perenne), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), corn (Zea mays) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) (Lin and Xing 2007) are reported. Rice seeds treated with SWCNTs and MWCNTs also showed improved germination (Stamphoulis et al. 2009). Insurance market

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NANOTECHNOLOGY: Use of nanoparticles in bioremediation

January 20, 2014

Nanotechnology can also play important role in pollution sensing and remediation of contaminated agricultural lands, groundwater and drinking water by exploiting novel properties of nanomaterials. Nanosensors are capable of detecting microbes, moisture content and chemical pollutants at very minute levels. Photocatalysis using metal oxide semiconductor nanostructures can degrade organic pesticides and industrial pollutants into harmless and often useful components (Baruah and Dutta, 2009). This technology can help in the remediation of contaminated agricultural lands and water bodies. Efficiency of the nanoscale iron particles have been demonstrated for transformation and detoxification of a wide variety of common environmental contaminants, such as chlorinated organic solvents, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (Zhang, 2003). Lanthanum nanoparticles can absorb phosphates in aqueous environments. Application of these nanoparticles in water bodies can absorb available phosphates thus preventing the algal growth (Joseph and Morrison, 2006). Nanofiltration (NF) has been shown to be an effective way of removing organic micropollutants from drinking water due to its size exclusion properties (Dixon et al. 2010). Buyers and Sellers

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NANOTECHNOLOGY: Nanosensors

January 16, 2014

Nanosensors

Nanotechnology applications in the food industry are contributing to the safety, quality and long shelf life of packed food. Many nano-based health drinks and foods containing nano-food supplements like iron have been manufactured. Nanocomposite, bio-degradable materials are being used for safe packaging and long shelf-life of food products. Composite materials with silicon nanoparticles used for packaging are found to be more airtight, thus preventing food decay (Moore 1999). Nanobiosensors are being used in the packaging material to detect microbiological and biochemical changes in food items, indicating food spoilage. Chip-based micro-arrays, Quantum dots and magnetic nanoparticles have been developed for rapid detection of biological pathogens like E. coli, Salmonella, Staphylococcus etc. in food (Su and Li 2004, Moraru et al. 2003; Yang et al. 2008). Nanobiosensors can also be designed to detect presence of pesticides and possibly genetically modified crops within the food system. Financial services markets

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NANOTECHNOLOGY: Application of nanotechnology

January 14, 2014

Nano-agriculture involves the employment of nanomaterials or nano-based technologies in agriculture, aiming to get some beneficial effect on the crops in terms of productivity or quality. At present, the work on application of nanotechnology in agriculture is at its preliminary stage, worldwide. But in coming years we will witness more applications of nanotechnology in food and agriculture sector. The Government of India initiated a Nano Science and Technology Mission in 2007 through the Department of Science and Technology with an allocation of Rupees 1,000 crores (US$ 200 million) for a period of five years and continues to strengthen it (DST 2009). The Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Government of India launched the Nanotechnology Initiative in Agriculture and allied sectors (Sastry 2007). Indian council on Agricultural Research ICAR has also initiated work on application of nanotechnology in agriculture. Service design process

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NANOTECHNOLOGY: Introduction

January 12, 2014

Introduction

The fast development in the disciplines like biotechnology and bioengineering has transformed agricultural into a modern industry. Nanotechnology, another upcoming discipline has revolutionary applications in pharmaceuticals, electronics, military, manufacturing, and other life sciences. Nanotechnology is the understanding and manipulating matter at scales measurable in nanometers (1-100 nm) at least in one direction (NNI 2007). At nanoscale, the surface area of the particles is very large relative to their small size, which can make them very reactive. Due to the very small size and high reactivity, the fundamental properties of the matter at nano-scale may differ from that of corresponding bulk material. These novel properties may help in the development of revolutionary technologies having application in different fields. For example, carbon in the form of graphite is relatively soft but nano form of carbon nanotubes (made of carbon atoms) is 117 times stronger than steel and 30 times stronger than kevlar (Chang et al. 2010). Thermal behavior of nanoscale materials may also differ from bulk materials (Pivkina et al. 2004). Aluminum in its bulk form does not burn, however, aluminum nanoparticles combusts rapidly and are used as propellant in rocket fuel. Precise use of such novel materials can lead to enormous economic and societal benefits. Thousands of nanotechnology based products are already in the market in the form of medicines, cosmetics, food packaging, formulations, electronics etc. Payday Loans Online

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RELATIONSHIP MARKETING: SCOPE OF RELATIONSHIP MARKETING

January 10, 2014

RELATIONSHIP MARKETINGReengineering

Relationship marketing has also been strongly influenced by reengineering. According to reengineering theory, organizations should be structured according to complete tasks and processes rather than functions. That is, cross-functional teams should be responsible for a whole process, from beginning to end, rather than having the work go from one functional department to another. Traditional marketing is said to use the functional department approach. The legacy of this can still be seen in the traditional four P’s of the marketing mix. Pricing, product management, promotion, and placement. According to Gordon, the marketing mix approach is too limited to provide a usable framework for assessing and developing customer relationships in many industries and should be replaced by the relationship marketing alternative model where the focus is on customers, relationships and interaction over time, rather than markets and products. Youth in Peacebuilding

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