Archive for November 29, 2013

PROMOTION OF GROWTH: MATERIALS AND METHODS

November 29, 2013

MATERIALS AND METHODSPREPARATION OF T. FLAVUS ISOLATES

For each plant (tomato and greenhouse cucumber), five T. flavus isolates were selected from our fungal collection which had shown the highest antagonistic activities against the causal agent of wilt diseases of these plants in the previous studies (Naraghi et al. 2010a and c). These isolates (TF-To-V-24, TF-To-V-30, TF-To-V-31, TF-To-U-36 and TF-To-U-38) were obtained from tomato fields in Tehran (Varamin) and Western Azarbayjan (Uremia) provinces of Iran and the remaining isolates (TF-Cu-V-55, TF-Cu-V-57, TF-Cu-V-58, TF-Cu-V-59 and TF-Cu-V-60) were obtained from cultivation regions of greenhouse cucumber in Tehran (Varamin) province.

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PROMOTION OF GROWTH: INTRODUCTION

November 27, 2013

INTRODUCTION

Environmental concerns have led to the need for sustainable use of natural resources. The conventional agriculture has caused considerable negative impacts on soil and water.
The sustainable agriculture employs many approaches and techniques to reduce negative effects of conventional agricultural practices on the environment. One of these strategies is the utilization of soil microorganisms for the promotion of plant growth and control of plant diseases (Botelho and Hagler, 2006).

The widespread use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers have been subject of public concerns and environmental protection agencies. The harmful chemicals may affect human health, contaminate environment and negatively affect biological resources. In addition, their high production cost and appearance of resistant pests should also be considered (Zaki et al., 1998; Heydari and Misaghi, 1998 and 2003).

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PRODUCTION STATUS OF FRUITS: FRUITS’ PRODUCTION

November 25, 2013

PRODUCTIONProduction

Table 3 shows that adult male members of the household were engaged in land clearing (85%), chemical application (95%), pruning (81%), and weeding (57%). Processing seeds (81%), raising seedlings (76%), planting (76%) were carried out by both the adult male and female. Only 10% of the respondents indicated that children were involved in pruning. The result shows that adult male and female members of the household supply the major labour for fruits production. But the adult male members were involved in more production activities probably because of the drudgery encountered in the performance of most production tasks. Above all, culturally some production activities are gender biased. Most rural communities have cultures, traditions/belief that limit women or men to certain farming activities and thus, it becomes a taboo for both gender to perform such function.

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PRODUCTION STATUS OF FRUITS: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

November 23, 2013

DISCUSSION

Fruits in Home Garden

Table1 shows that the respondents had orange (100%), Ogbono (Irvingia gabonensis) (100%), and Pawpaw (100%), and 99.0%, 98.0% and 94.0%, 90.0% had avocado, kola, pear and banana, and mango in their home gardens, respectively. Similarly, the respondents had ukpaka (89%), plantain (87%), pineapple (65%), and udala (52%). Only 2% , 3%, and 5%, 27%, 31%, 47% had bitter kola, Mmimi and Ukwa (bread fruit),cashew, guava, and coconut, respectively. This confirms Awono (2002) which reported that fruits such as ogbono (Irvingia gabonensis), Garcina kola, Treculia Africana, African star However the fruits with highest average number in home gardens were Ogbono (M=12) orange (M=11), pawpaw (M=11), avocado (M=9), pineapple (M=9), mmimi (M=9), banana (M=8) and pear (M=8).

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PRODUCTION STATUS OF FRUITS: METHODOLOGY

November 21, 2013

METHODOLOGY

The study was carried out in rural communities of Enugu- Ezike North Agricultural Zone of Enugu state. Household heads constituted the population for the study. Out of three local governents areas in the zone, one local government area (Igbo-eze North local government area) was purposively selected because of high involvement of the communities in fruits production. Igbo-eze North local government area comprised 4 autonomous town communities namely: Umuozzi, Umuitodo, Essodo, and Ezzodo. A proportionate random techniques was used to select 5, 2, 2, and 1 villages from Umuozzi, Umuitodo , Essodo, and Ezzodo town communities, respectively. Thus, a total of ten village communities were selected. From each of these villages, ten households’ heads were randomly selected from list of households provided by informants and interviewed. A total of 100 respondents were interviewed and used for the study. Structured interview schedule was used to obtain relevant information based on the objectives. Respondents were asked to identify fruit species in the home gardens, the type, and status.

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PRODUCTION STATUS OF FRUITS: INTRODUCTION

November 19, 2013

INTRODUCTION

Fruits play important role in the provision of essential micronutrients and the composition of balanced diet. According to Adebooye (2003), regular consumption of fruits contributes substantially to ameliorating the scourge of micronutrient malnutrition as they play crucial role in nutritional livelihood of the Nigerian’s population especially in the rural area where people can scarcely pay for meat, egg and milk. As a component of healthy diet, when consumed daily in sufficient amount (quality and quantity) helps to reduce the increasing scourge of several non-communicable and nutrition-associated diseases. Carlos (2004) report showed that low fruit and vegetable intake is estimated to cause about 31% of ischaemic heart disease and 11% of stroke worldwide. Overall, it is estimated that up to 2.7 million lives could potentially be saved each year if fruit and vegetable consumption was sufficiently increased (FAO, 2004 ). Garrity (2004) asserted that fruit production enhances household and national food security and poverty alleviation. Fruit plays important role in ameliorating household and national episodic and chronic food insecurity (FA0, 2004). According to Schreckenberg (2002) fruits are important hungry season foods when agricultural crops are not available or fail. For example, African breadfruit (Treculia Africana) constitutes a strategic food reserve of essential food nutrient that are available at critical periods in the year when reliable sources of these nutrients are very scarce.

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MANAGEMENT OF COLD WATER FISH FARMING: OTHER RESULTS

November 17, 2013

In addition to what was directly obtained from the analyses, some other issues are concluded during the study which can not be assumed as the direct implications of the findings of the research and are mainly considered as implicit results of the study:
1. Water is a gift of God, and reserving water and preventing it from being wasted is one of the issues that have frequently been focused. In modern management of farms, the fact that water is non-renewal has been taken into great consideration. It is necessary for us to take this fact into consideration in our country.
2. The manager should not merely care about marketing to the purchasing phase; he/she should also attempt to encourage the consumption of fish regarding new findings about the significant role of the aquatic species in nutrition, for example stressing the content of Omega 3 in fish.
3. Modern methods of farming in enclosed waters should also be taken into consideration and the management methods other nations should be used and defined as models of application.

Two groups of suggestions are presented in this paper; the first group is derived from the results of this study and the second group is derived from the personal studies and experiences of the researcher.

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MANAGEMENT OF COLD WATER FISH FARMING: RESULTS

November 15, 2013

RESULTS

Efficient attention to the management of cold water fish farms can result in changes and new directions in the industry of aquatic species farming. This study seeks to specify and prioritize the effective factors in the management of cold water fish farms in the province of Qazvin. After the determination of these factors and the designing of the related hierarchy, the results obtained from prioritizations were as follows:

First, three major factors of economic factors, technical-engineering factors and management factors were compared with each other and then they were prioritized. The result of this prioritization was as follows:
1. Management factors at the first level of priority;
2. Technical-engineering factors at the second level of priority;
3. Economical factors at the third level of priority.

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MANAGEMENT OF COLD WATER FISH FARMING: DATA ANALYSIS

November 13, 2013

Research Question:

What are the effective factors in the management of cold water fish farms in the Province of Qazvin?

In order to find the answer to this question, three first questionnaires of this research were designed and the data were collected using these questionnaires.

In questionnaire the specialists (the experts in research) were asked to signify the ten major factors effective in management of cold water fish farms in the Province of Qazvin. After collecting the questionnaires and extracting the factors indicated in it, the following results were obtained.

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MANAGEMENT OF COLD WATER FISH FARMING: DETERMINING THE PRIORITIES

November 12, 2013

PRIORITIES

Pair comparison of the factors in order to determine the relative significance of the factors in each level of the hierarchy.

Calculating the Results

Combining and integrating the comparisons made for the purpose of a general evaluation of the decision; in short, in this method, the decision maker or the decision making group assigns a goal and when the goal is specified as the subject of the decision making, various options or alternatives which are significant in the process of decision making are listed and then various criteria are compared in pairs among the options, after that based on a series of mathematic rules such as normalization we can determine the priority of the choice.

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